Biological control of weeds in Vanuatu began in 1935, with the introduction of the tinged Teleonemia scrupulosa to control Lantana camara. To date, nine biological control agents have been intentionally introduced to control eight weed species. Seven of these agents have established on their respective hosts while an eighth, Zygogramma bicolorata, an agent for Parthenium hysterophorus has only recently been released and establishment is unlikely.

This island nation contains many marine eco-systems, from globally significant coral reefs to mangroves, seagrass areas, seamounts and deep-sea trenches supporting at least 769 fish species, including sharks and rays, as well as whales, dolphins and sea turtles.

It may be possible to tell that a species is likely to be invasive, for example because it has been a problem elsewhere. However it will be difficult to say with certainty that a

Early settlers brought in animals (e.g. cattle, pigs, goats, cats, chickens and dogs) for food, pets and hunters for their survivals. Some of the animals were not well managed that they become wild (feral) and become problems. Feral pigs, cattle, goats tramp and graze on forest plants and garden crops that may result in desertification in some areas. Their manure deposits in water cause algal growth that makes water bodies look dirty. Feral and domesticated cats and dogs kill native birds, reptiles and insects, which leads to great loss of native wild life throughout the islands.

Vatthe the largest Conservation Area, and the most extensive lowland alluvial forest left in Vanuatu, is under threat from an invasive vine, big leaf (Merremia peltata), which is causing the death of large numbers of canopy trees.

The Pacific islands of Oceania cover almost 15% of the world's surface and are characterised by a high degree of ecosystem and species diversity. The region is characterised by thousands of isolated small coral atolls and higher volcanic islands, which has led to the high diversity of species found today. In fact, the number of plants and animals found nowhere else on earth (endemic species) is extremely high - often up to 90% for particular groups. Often, these rare and endemic species are adapted to specialised habitats and limited to small areas of a few islands.

Vanuatu is a Y-shaped archipelago located in the Southwest Pacific Ocean at 13-20o S, 166o – 172o E. There is a distance of roughly 1,300 km from northernmost island to the southernmost. The country’s coastline extends for 2,528 km long and comprises over 80 islands with a total land area of 12,336 km2 , set within a 200- mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of approximately 680,000Km2 . Vanuatu’s islands are geologically young and were formed during the four main volcanic activity periods.

Rodents are a key pest to agricultural and rural island communities of the South Pacific, but there is limited information of their impact on the crops and livelihoods of small-scale farmers.