A successful ground-based eradication of black rats (Rattus rattus) was undertaken on the remote, uninhabited Shiant Isles of north-west Scotland over winter (14 October–28 March) 2015–16. The rat eradication was carried out as part of the Shiants Seabird Recovery Project, which aims to secure long-term breeding habitat for protected seabirds and to attract European storm petrels and Manx shearwaters to nest on the Shiants.

Saving Scotland’s Red Squirrels (SSRS), launched in 2009, is a project to stop the decline of core populations of Scotland’s native red squirrel. It is a partnership project between Scottish Wildlife Trust, Scottish Natural Heritage, Forestry Commission Scotland, RSPB Scotland, Scottish Land & Estates and the Red Squirrel Survival Trust. The aim is the containment of the invasive non-native grey squirrel, which poses a dual threat to red squirrels through competition and disease transmission.

The New Zealand ?atworm, Arthurdendyus triangulatus, is an alien invasive species in The British Isles and the Faroes. It was probably ?rst introduced after WWII and is an obligate predator of our native earthworms. It was initially considered a curiosity until observations in the 1990s in Northern Ireland found it could signi?cantly reduce earthworm numbers. In 1992, it was scheduled under the Countryside and Wildlife Act 1981 then transferred to the Wildlife and Natural Environment (Scotland) Act in 2011 which makes it an o?ence to knowingly distribute the ?atworm.

The American mink (Neovison vison) has invaded most of the United Kingdom following escapes from furfarms over decades. Its escalating impact on riparian and coastal biodiversity, including seabirds and water voles, is well documented. Starting in north-east Scotland in 2004, long-term, multi-institution mink control efforts have harnessed the enthusiasm of volunteer conservationists to push back the mink invasion over a vast area.

The North American signal cray?sh (Pacifastacus leniusculus) has been present in Scotland since at least 1995 and the species is now known to be present in a number of catchments. Once established, few opportunities for containment exist and eradication can often be impossible to achieve. However, in small, isolated water bodies, the application of a non-cray?sh-speci?c biocide has provided the opportunity to remove this species permanently. In July 2011, signal cray?sh were discovered in a ?ooded quarry pond at Ballachulish in the Scottish Highlands.

Prior to 2008 there were few invasive alien species (IAS) initiatives operating in Scotland on a scale required for e?ective control. The establishment of the Biosecurity and Invasive Non-Native Species Programme by the Rivers and Fisheries Trusts of Scotland was the ?rst attempt to link local e?orts with national IAS strategy on scales appropriate to the e?ective control of target species. The programme worked with 26 local ?sheries trusts to produce biosecurity plans that covered over 90% of Scotland’s rivers and lochs.