With marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators

Scientists have advocated for local interventions, such as creating marine protected areas and implementing fishery restrictions, as ways to mitigate local stressors to limit the effects of climate change on reef-building corals

n 2010 Parties to the United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) agreed to reduce the rate ofbiodiversity loss within a decade by achieving 20 objectives that are commonly known as the Aichi Targets.

Resilience underpins the sustainability of both ecological and social systems. Extensive loss of reef corals following recent mass bleaching events have challenged the notion that support of system resilience is a viable reef management strategy.