Prior to 2008 there were few invasive alien species (IAS) initiatives operating in Scotland on a scale required for e?ective control. The establishment of the Biosecurity and Invasive Non-Native Species Programme by the Rivers and Fisheries Trusts of Scotland was the ?rst attempt to link local e?orts with national IAS strategy on scales appropriate to the e?ective control of target species. The programme worked with 26 local ?sheries trusts to produce biosecurity plans that covered over 90% of Scotland’s rivers and lochs.