On September 2, 2004 Hurricane Frances (Category 3) passed directly over San Salvador Island, The Bahamas. This event offered the opportunity to gather baseline data regarding the impact of hurricanes on populations of the invasive Australian pine (Casuarina equisettifolia L.) in the Bahamas. Results of vegetation surveys within both forest stands and beach environments suggest that the overall impact of this hurricane was minimal.

Invasive alien species (IASs) on islands have broad impacts across biodiversity, agriculture, economy, health and culture, which tend to be stronger than on continents. Across small-island developing states (SIDSs), although only a small number of IASs are widely distributed, many more, including those with greatest impact, are found on only a small number of islands. Patterns of island invasion are not consistent across SIDS geographic regions, with differences attributable to correlated patterns in island biogeography and human development.