The Hanamiai archaeological site (Tahuata, Marquesas Islands) has yielded a strati ed assemblage of bird bones

We assessed the prevalence of alien species as a driver of recent extinctions in five major taxa (plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals), using data from the IUCN Red List. Our results show that alien species are the second most common threat associated with species that have gone completely extinct from these taxa since AD 1500. Aliens are the most common threat associated with extinctions in three of the five taxa analysed, and for vertebrate extinctions overall.

Only around a third of the world’s remaining forest cover survives in the form of Intact Forest Landscapes (IFL), and that proportion is declining.

Native plants and animals can rapidly become superabundant and dominate ecosystems, leading to claims that native species are no less likely than alien species to cause environmental damage.