ecosystem services

The mitigation hierarchy (MH) is a step-by-step tool used to limit the negative impacts of development projects. It can be used for many disciplines; this guidance note focuses on its use to manage risks and impacts to biodiversity. Very similar approaches can be used for ecosystem services and even social impacts.

Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems, such as clean air, fresh water, and the pollination of crops. The aim of this literature review was to find empirical data illustrating the ways in which conservation land and conservation management activities affect ecosystem services. The widely-held belief that natural ecosystems—such as those found on conservation land in New Zealand—provide a range of ecosystem services is generally supported by the literature.