The aim of this consultancy is to prepare a broad analysis of legal and institutional options for the establishment and management of Conservation Areas in fourteen independent Pacific Island countries. The full terms of reference for the consultancy are annexed at Appendix 1.

2012 has seen the successful implementation of a new structure for SPREP reflecting the priority areas in our Strategic Plan: biodiversity and ecosystem management; climate change; environmental monitoring and governance; and waste management and pollution control.

Biodiversity on marine islands is characterized by unique biogeographic. phylogenetic and functional characteristics. Island hold a disproportionate amount of the world's biodiversity, and they have also experienced a disproportionate loss of it.

Positive relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) highlight the importance of conserving biodiversity to maintain key ecosystem functions and associated services. Although natural systems are rapidly losing biodiversity due to numerous of human-caused stressors, our understanding of how multiple stressors influence the BEF relationships comes largely from small experimental studies.

The book presents an analysis of the ecological, economic and social threats posed by the introduction and spread of non-native species. It provides a comprehensive description of impacts of non-native species from all five kingdoms of life across all ecosystems of the world. New insights into the impacts arising from biological invasions are generated through taking an ecosystem services perspective.

Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature) and invasive vertebrates on ~465,000 islands worldwide by conducting a comprehensive literature review and interviews with more than 500 experts.