Invasive species

Invasive alien species are recognised as one of the leading threats to biodiversity and also impose enormous costs on agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and other human enterprises, as well as on human health. Rapidly accelerating human

The New Zealand ?atworm, Arthurdendyus triangulatus, is an alien invasive species in The British Isles and the Faroes. It was probably ?rst introduced after WWII and is an obligate predator of our native earthworms. It was initially considered a curiosity until observations in the 1990s in Northern Ireland found it could signi?cantly reduce earthworm numbers. In 1992, it was scheduled under the Countryside and Wildlife Act 1981 then transferred to the Wildlife and Natural Environment (Scotland) Act in 2011 which makes it an o?ence to knowingly distribute the ?atworm.

The bird-parasitic ?y, Philornis downsi, was ?rst recorded in the Galápagos Islands in 1964 where it likely invaded from mainland Ecuador. This muscid ?y is now the leading cause of recent declines in endemic landbird populations as its larvae feed on the nestlings of at least 19 bird species in the Galápagos, including many species of Darwin’s ?nches. As yet, no long-term control method has been implemented for P. downsi, but importation (also known as classical) biological control may be a viable option.

Pieris brassicae, large white butter?y, was ?rst found in New Zealand in Nelson in May 2010. The Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) responded with a monitoring programme until November 2012 when the Department of Conservation (DOC) commenced an eradication programme. DOC was highly motivated to eradicate P. brassicae by the risk it posed to New Zealand endemic cress species, some of which are already nearly extinct. DOC eliminated the butter?y from Nelson in less than four years at a cost of ca. NZ$5 million.

Tiritiri Matangi Island in the Hauraki Gulf, Auckland, New Zealand is a 220 ha restoration island managed by the Department of Conservation as an open sanctuary. Following eradication of the only mammalian predator, the Paci?c rat (Rattus exulans) in 1993, a variety of threatened birds, lizards and a giant invertebrate have been transferred to the island. In March 2000, Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was discovered and delimiting surveys revealed a 10 ha infestation.

The yellow-legged hornet (Vespa velutina) was detected for the ?rst time in the north of Spain in 2010, but was not detected in Majorca, Balearic Islands until 2015 and only one secondary nest, with 10 combs, was found in the northwest of the island. During 2016, nine more nests were found in the same region. To better understand the biology of V.

The Falkland Islands (FI), as with many island ecosystems, is vulnerable to invasive species, which can cause wide ranging social and environmental consequences. Control of invasive species is widely recognised as a priority, but there have never been attempts to use classical biological control (CBC) for this purpose in FI. The European earwig was recently introduced to the FI and has since become abundant in the Stanley area and some other settlements on the islands. Earwigs now cause considerable damage to garden crops and also pose a number of health hazards.

Attempts to eradicate invasive terrestrial arthropods are often regarded as gambles. They o?er the possibility of long term freedom from a pest but are usually confronted with substantial uncertainty and come with a range of technical, economic, environmental, social and political risks. Few guidelines are available for evaluating eradication attempts against terrestrial arthropods.

The EU regulation 1143/2014 “On the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species” entered into force on 1 January 2015. On 13 July 2016, the EU list of invasive alien species that require action was adopted. The list includes ?ve di?erent cray?sh species. Member states will be required to take measures for early detection and rapid eradication of these species. Except for some eradications performed in the United Kingdom and Norway, there has not been much e?ort put into eradication of invasive cray?sh species throughout Europe.

House sparrows (Passer domesticus) compete with native bird species, consume crops, and are vectors for diseases in areas where they have been introduced. Sparrow eradication attempts aimed at eliminating these negative effects highlight the importance of deploying multiple alternative methods to remove individuals while maintaining the remaining population naïve to techniques.