Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP)

2012 has seen the successful implementation of a new structure for SPREP reflecting the priority areas in our Strategic Plan: biodiversity and ecosystem management; climate change; environmental monitoring and governance; and waste management and pollution control.

Marine invasive species have received much less attention than terrestrial species worldwide. In the Pacific, the marine environment provides us with a significant part of our diet and income. Marine Managed Areas focus on protecting these important resources for livelihood purposes, biodiversity and ecosystem function, tourism and many other benefits. Although invasive species management is more difficult in the marine environment, it is not something we can neglect, and the efforts we put in need to increase. This guide seeks to provide some options for this management.

The restoration of the Islands of Nuutele and Nuulua is a priority of the Government of Samoa and the communities of Aleipata District. Planning is well advanced on a key element of this, the eradication of Pacific Rats (Rattus exulans) by aerial

This report was prepared for the Samoan Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE) by consultant James Atherton with the assistance of Forestry Division Staff in particular Vailega Timoteo Molesi and Peteli Pese

The importance of natural resources to the economy of the Pacific island region cannot be overstated. Island communities have unsurprisingly relied heavily on ocean resources for sustenance and economic activities, such as fishing and transport. Land-based resources are also vital at subsistence level, and are providing increasing development opportunities, for example through forestry and mineral mining.

Marine pollution is widely recognised as one of the four major threats to the world’s oceans, along with habitat destruction, over-exploitation of living marine resources and invasive marine species. Spills of oil and other chemicals into the marine environment, both from ships and land-based sources, is a significant source of pollution.

Rapidly expanding human populations and associated economic growth and overconsumption is resulting in serious degradation of the natural environment human survival depends on (Vitousek et al., 1997; Sanderson et al., 2002; Orr, 2004; Alroy, 2010; Branch et al., 2013). Almost half of the global human population currently lives within 150km of the coast (UN Atlas of the Oceans, 2014). This results in severe pressures being placed on marine and coastal environments.