Biological control of weeds in Vanuatu began in 1935, with the introduction of the tinged Teleonemia scrupulosa to control Lantana camara. To date, nine biological control agents have been intentionally introduced to control eight weed species. Seven of these agents have established on their respective hosts while an eighth, Zygogramma bicolorata, an agent for Parthenium hysterophorus has only recently been released and establishment is unlikely.

The main outcome of the project was the control or significant reduction of chromolaena in most provinces of PNG. Areas that were once monostands of chromolaena have been converted back into subsistence farms, and plantations in which chromolaena was the main understorey species are now clear of the weed. This outcome was the result of the primary outputs of the project: (a) knowledge of the extent of the chromolaena problem and its impact of the livelihoods of smallholders, (b) an understanding of effective biocontrol agents and (c) significant capacity built in biocontrol of weeds.

NEMS is SPREP's Environmental Monitoring and governance (EMG) Programme provides technical support in collaboration with Member countries' environmental agencies.

Fiji’s marine ecosystems are worth FJ$2.5 billion per year—exceeding the country’s total export value. We are strongly committed to sustaining these values to build an equitable and prosperous blue economy

This island nation contains many marine eco-systems, from globally significant coral reefs to mangroves, seagrass areas, seamounts and deep-sea trenches supporting at least 769 fish species, including sharks and rays, as well as whales, dolphins and sea turtles.

Kiribati’s marine ecosystems are worth at least AU$400 million per year, which is twice the country’s gross domestic product (GDP). We are strongly committed to sustaining these values to build an equitable and pros-perous blue economy

In addition to the extensive coral reef habitats described in Chapter 5, the shallow subtidal and intertidal zones around the coasts of Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) often support large areas of mangroves and seagrasses.

The Pacific islands have an extremely rich maritime heritage. The islands themselves were first populated by what are arguably the greatest mariners in human history. In pie-European times the Pacific islandersnavigated wooden canoes held together with coconut fibre across thousands of miles of open ocean, with