Peter J Bellingham ? David R Towns ? Ewen K Cameron ? Joe J Davis ? David A Wardle ? Janet M Wilmshurst ? Christa P H Mulder

New Zealand’s offshore and outlying islands have long been a focus of conservation biology as sites of local endemism and as last refuges for many species. During the c. 730 years since New Zealand has been settled by people, mammalian predators have invaded many islands and caused local and global extinctions. New Zealand has led international efforts in island restoration. By the late 1980s, translocations of threatened birds to predator-free islands were well under way to safeguard against extinction.